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Reason - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. And a distinction is sometimes made between discursive reason, reason proper, and intuitive reason. Reason, like habit or intuition, is one of the ways by which thinking comes from one idea to a related idea.
For example, it is the means by which rational beings understand themselves to think about cause and effect, truth and falsehood, and what is good or bad. It is also closely identified with the ability to self- consciously change beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and institutions, and therefore with the capacity for freedom and self- determination. The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally. Animal psychology considers the question of whether animals other than humans can reason. Etymology and related words. This was originally not just a translation used for philosophy, but was also commonly a translation for logos in the sense of an account of money. Logitech Harmony Software Download 7.7.
The meaning of the word . Philosophy can be described as a way of life based upon reason, and in the other direction reason has been one of the major subjects of philosophical discussion since ancient times. Reason is often said to be reflexive, or . Perhaps starting with Pythagoras or Heraclitus, the cosmos is even said to have reason. Reason was considered of higher stature than other characteristics of human nature, such as sociability, because it is something humans share with nature itself, linking an apparently immortal part of the human mind with the divine order of the cosmos itself. Within the human mind or soul (psyche), reason was described by Plato as being the natural monarch which should rule over the other parts, such as spiritedness (thumos) and the passions.
Aristotle, Plato's student, defined human beings as rational animals, emphasizing reason as a characteristic of human nature. He defined the highest human happiness or well being (eudaimonia) as a life which is lived consistently, excellently and completely in accordance with reason. For example, in the neo- platonist account of Plotinus, the cosmos has one soul, which is the seat of all reason, and the souls of all individual humans are part of this soul.
Reason is for Plotinus both the provider of form to material things, and the light which brings individuals souls back into line with their source. One of the most important of these changes involved a change in the metaphysical understanding of human beings. Scientists and philosophers began to question the teleological understanding of the world. This new understanding eventually displaced the previous world view that derived from a spiritual understanding of the universe.
Accordingly, in the 1. Ren. Any grounds of knowledge outside that understanding was, therefore, subject to doubt.
In his search for a foundation of all possible knowledge, Descartes deliberately decided to throw into doubt all knowledge . I am therefore precisely nothing but a thinking thing; that is a mind, or intellect, or understanding, or reason . Breaking with tradition and many thinkers after him, Descartes explicitly did not divide the incorporeal soul into parts, such as reason and intellect, describing them as one indivisible incorporeal entity. A contemporary of Descartes, Thomas Hobbes described reason as a broader version of .
Similar to Descartes, Hobbes asserted that . Hume took it in an especially skeptical direction, proposing that there could be no possibility of deducing relationships of cause and effect, and therefore no knowledge is based on reasoning alone, even if it seems otherwise. Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them.