Teas V Study Guide
Tea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cup of Tea. Tea. Type. Hot or cold beverage. Country of origin.
China. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to the West during the 1. These are also known as tisanes or herbal infusions to distinguish them from . There were other ancient words for tea, though ming (. Most Chinese languages, such as Mandarin and Cantonese, pronounce it along the lines of cha, but Hokkien varieties along the Southern coast of China and in Southeast Asia pronounce it like teh. These two pronunciations have made their separate ways into other languages around the world. This pronunciation gives rise to English . Due to the Portuguese occupation of Macau, the Portuguese adopted the Cantonese pronunciation .
Teas V Study Guide 2016
Teas V Study Guide Pdf
The Korean and Japanese pronunciations of cha, however, came not from Cantonese, rather they were borrowed into Korean and Japanese during earlier periods of Chinese history. A third form, the increasingly widespread chai, came from Persian .
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They are derived from the Northern Chinese pronunciation of ch. English has all three forms: cha or char (both pronounced ), attested from the 1.
However, the form chai refers specifically to a black tea mixed with honey, spices and milk in contemporary English. The earliest written records of tea come from China. In the Chronicles of Huayang, it was recorded that the Ba people in Sichuan presented tu to the Zhou king. The state of Ba and its neighbour Shu were later conquered by the Qin, and according to the 1. Gu Yanwu who wrote in Ri Zhi Lu (. Among the tasks listed to be undertaken by the youth, the contract states that . The first record of tea cultivation is also dated to this period (the reign of Emperor Xuan of Han), during which tea was cultivated on Meng Mountain (.
Another early credible record of tea drinking dates to the third century AD, in a medical text by Hua Tuo, who stated, . In India, tea has been drunk for medicinal purposes for a long but uncertain period, but apart from the Himalayan region it seems not to have been used as a beverage until the British introduced tea- drinking there much later. Through the centuries, a variety of techniques for processing tea, and a number of different forms of tea, were developed. During the Tang dynasty, tea was steamed, then pounded and shaped into cake form, while in the Song dynasty, loose- leaf tea was developed and became popular.
During the Yuan and Ming dynasties, unoxidized tea leaves were first pan- fried, then rolled and dried, a process that stops the oxidation process which turns the leaves dark and allows tea to remain green. In the 1. 5th century, oolong tea, in which the leaves were allowed to partially oxidize before pan- frying, was developed. Yellow tea was an accidental discovery in the production of green tea during the Ming dynasty, when apparently sloppy practices allowed the leaves to turn yellow, but yielded a different flavour as a result. Tea was first introduced to Portuguese priests and merchants in China during the 1.
The first recorded shipment of tea by a European nation was in 1. Dutch East India Company moved a cargo of tea from Macao to Java, then two years later, the Dutch bought the first assignment of tea which was from Hirado in Japan to be shipped to Europe.
Tea became a fashionable drink in The Hague in the Netherlands, and the Dutch introduced the drink to Germany, France and across the Atlantic to New Amsterdam (New York). The first record of tea in English came from a letter written by Richard Wickham, who ran an East India Company office in Japan, writing to a merchant in Macao requesting . Peter Mundy, a traveller and merchant who came across tea in Fujian in 1. Tea, however, was not widely consumed in Britain until the 1.
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British drinkers preferred to add sugar and milk to black tea, and black tea overtook green tea in popularity in the 1. The British government removed the tax on tea, thereby eliminating the smuggling trade by 1. The price of tea in Europe fell steadily during the 1. Indian tea began to arrive in large quantities; by the late 1.
The Alubari tea garden was opened in 1. Darjeeling tea began to be produced.
In 1. 84. 8, Robert Fortune was sent by the East India Company on a mission to China to bring the tea plant back to Great Britain. He began his journey in high secrecy as his mission occurred in the lull between the Anglo- Chinese First Opium War (1. Top 50 Greatest Rock Songs Of All Time Download.
BLACK TEA: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings. References: Adams, B. Caffeine has no clinically significant effect on aqueous humor flow in the normal human eye.
Ophthalmology 1. 99. Adcocks, C., Collin, P., and Buttle, D. Catechins from green tea (Camellia sinensis) inhibit bovine and human cartilage proteoglycan and type II collagen degradation in vitro. Ahmed, S., Wang, N., Lalonde, M., Goldberg, V.
Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin- 3- gallate (EGCG) differentially inhibits interleukin- 1 beta- induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase- 1 and - 1. O., Sowunmi, A., Honeywell, R., and Renwick, A.
The effects of acute falciparum malaria on the disposition of caffeine and the comparison of saliva and plasma- derived pharmacokinetic parameters in adult Nigerians. Eur. J Clin Pharmacol 2. A prospective study of alcohol, smoking, caffeine, and the risk of duodenal ulcer in men. Epidemiology 1. 99.
Aldridge, A., Aranda, J. Caffeine metabolism in the newborn.
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Study of the causes of direct- acting mutagenicity in coffee and tea using the Ara test in Salmonella typhimurium. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of natural methylxanthines in animal and man. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol 2. E., Coons, G., and Gorman, N.
The effects of caffeine, impulsivity, and sex on memory for word lists. J., Bueno de Mesquita, H. Catechin intake might explain the inverse relation between tea consumption and ischemic heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Dietary caffeine intake and the risk for detrusor instability: a case- control study. Caffeine, blood pressure, and serum lipids. Banerjee, S., Manna, S., Mukherjee, S., Pal, D., Panda, C.
Black tea polyphenols restrict benzopyrene- induced mouse lung cancer progression through inhibition of Cox- 2 and induction of caspase- 3 expression. Asian Pac. J Cancer Prev. A., Klem, I., Siegler, J., Fogel, J., Sacchi, T.
Incidence of caffeine in serum of patients undergoing dipyridamole myocardial perfusion stress test by an intensive versus routine caffeine history screening. Acute caffeine overdose in the neonate. Am. J Dis Child 1. A., Gerhardsson, de, V, and Ekbom, A. Coffee, tea, tobacco, and cancer of the large bowel. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. Caffeine use during pregnancy and child outcome: a 7- year prospective study.
The excretion of caffeine in the semen of men: pharmacokinetics and comparison of the concentrations in blood and semen. J Clin Pharmacol 1. A., Vorster, H., Jerling, J. C., Magee, E., Mulligan, A., Runswick, S. Effect of black tea drinking on blood lipids, blood pressure and aspects of bowel habit. Br J Nutr 1. 99. 7; 7. P., Smith, S., and Yelin, E.
Use of herbal products, coffee or black tea, and over- the- counter medications as self- treatments among adults with asthma. J Allergy Clin. Immunol. Pt 1): 7. 89- 7. 91. Comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine in young and elderly men.
J Pharmacokinet. Biopharm. Protein binding of caffeine in young and elderly males. J Pharm. Sci 1. 98. H., and Mc. Laughlin, J. Tea and cancer: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Accelerating action of tea on mouse skin carcinogenesis.
A., Ort, S., Merino, M. J., White, C., and Kelsey, J. Caffeine consumption and fibrocystic breast disease: a case- control epidemiologic study. S., Martin, H., and Stern, L. Toxicity from tea ingestion in an infant: a computer simulation analysis.
J., Gregory, J., and Pak, C. A further study of oxalate bioavailability in foods. A., Bolton- Smith, C., Woodward, M., and Tunstall- Pedoe, H.
Coffee and tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in men and women: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 1. E., Pahor, M., Foley, D. Occult caffeine as a source of sleep problems in an older population. Caffeine abstention in the management of anxiety disorders. The erosive effect of herbal tea on dental enamel. The effect of consuming instant black tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy humans.
J Am Coll. Nutr 2. J., and Fairbrother, G. Caffeine reduction education to improve urinary symptoms. Bu- Abbas, A., Nunez, X., Clifford, M.